Securing Control and Value: The Crucial Role of First Right of Refusal Clauses in Shareholders Agreements

by | Nov 27, 2023 | Business, Contracts, Featured, Law

Securing Control and Value: The Crucial Role of First Right of Refusal Clauses in Shareholders Agreements


In the intricate landscape of corporate governance, shareholders agreements serve as the foundation for defining relationships and safeguarding interests. For shareholders, particularly in closely-held companies, a First Right of Refusal (FROR) clause emerges as a powerful and strategic component. This article explores the critical importance of FROR clauses in ensuring control, preserving relationships, and maximizing the value of a business.


Understanding First Right of Refusal:

A First Right of Refusal clause grants existing shareholders the privilege to purchase a departing shareholder’s stake before it is offered to external parties. Essentially, it provides shareholders with the first opportunity to maintain or increase their ownership in the company, serving as a preemptive mechanism in the event of a proposed sale.


Preserving Ownership Structure:

One of the primary advantages of a FROR clause is its ability to preserve the existing ownership structure of the company. For majority shareholders, this is crucial in maintaining control and strategic decision-making. The clause acts as a safeguard against an undesirable shift in ownership that could potentially disrupt the established dynamics and direction of the business.


Maintaining Control and Decision-Making:

In closely-held companies, maintaining a specific balance of ownership among key stakeholders is often essential for preserving control and facilitating effective decision-making. The FROR clause allows existing shareholders, particularly majority shareholders, to retain control by having the initial option to acquire additional shares. This helps in preventing shifts in control that may occur if shares are sold to external parties without the consent of existing shareholders.


Facilitating Succession Planning:

In family-owned businesses or companies with a designated succession plan, preserving the ownership structure is critical for a smooth transition from one generation or leadership team to the next. A FROR clause allows the current owners or successors to manage the timing and pace of this transition, preventing the dilution of ownership to external parties who may not be aligned with the company’s long-term goals.


Fostering Stability and Relationships:

The presence of a FROR clause fosters stability and trust among shareholders. Knowing that they have the first option to acquire additional shares or prevent an external party from gaining a significant stake provides a sense of security. This, in turn, promotes a cooperative and harmonious environment, reducing the likelihood of internal disputes that could harm the company’s stability.


Maximizing Value and Investment:

From a financial perspective, the FROR clause offers a unique opportunity for shareholders to maximize the value of their investment. By having the first right to purchase additional shares at a predetermined price or match an external offer, shareholders can strategically expand their holdings without diluting their ownership or potentially capitalize on favorable market conditions.


Strategic Decision-Making and Flexibility:

FROR clauses empower shareholders with strategic decision-making capabilities. In the face of a proposed sale, shareholders can carefully assess the situation and decide whether to exercise their right to acquire the departing shareholder’s stake. This flexibility allows shareholders to adapt to changing market conditions and make decisions that align with the long-term interests of the company.


Mitigating External Influences:

By providing shareholders with a preemptive right to purchase shares, the FROR clause helps mitigate the influence of external parties on the company’s ownership structure. This is particularly important in closely-held businesses where maintaining a specific group dynamic and strategic vision is integral to the company’s success.


Here is an example of how a First Right of Refusal Clause might look like.

  1. Right of First Refusal

Each shareholder (the “Selling Shareholder”) shall have the first right of refusal (the “Right of First Refusal”) to purchase all or any portion of the shares of the Company (the “Shares”) that another shareholder (the “Selling Shareholder”) proposes to transfer, sell, or otherwise dispose of (the “Proposed Transfer”).

  1. Notice of Proposed Transfer

If a Selling Shareholder proposes to transfer any Shares, the Selling Shareholder shall promptly deliver written notice (the “Notice”) to the Company and all other shareholders of the Company. The Notice shall state the following:

(a) The number and class of Shares proposed to be transferred;

(b) The proposed price per Share;

(c) The name and address of the proposed transferee; and

(d) Any other terms and conditions of the proposed transfer.

  1. Exercise of Right of First Refusal

Any shareholder who desires to exercise the Right of First Refusal must deliver written notice to the Company and the Selling Shareholder within [Number] business days after the date of the Notice. The notice of exercise (the “Exercise Notice”) shall state the following:

(a) The number and class of Shares that the shareholder desires to purchase;

(b) The price per Share that the shareholder agrees to pay; and

(c) The shareholder’s agreement to purchase the Shares on the same terms and conditions set forth in the Notice.

  1. Purchase of Shares

If a shareholder exercises the Right of First Refusal, the Selling Shareholder shall sell the Shares to the exercising shareholder on the terms and conditions set forth in the Exercise Notice. The purchase of the Shares shall be completed within [Number] business days after the date of the Exercise Notice.

  1. Limitation on Right of First Refusal

The Right of First Refusal shall not apply to:

(a) Transfers of Shares between spouses, domestic partners, or lineal descendants;

(b) Transfers of Shares to or from the Company;

(c) Transfers of Shares that are part of a bona fide reorganization, merger, or consolidation of the Company; and

(d) Transfers of Shares that are required by law or by court order.

  1. Waiver of Right of First Refusal

The shareholders of the Company may waive the Right of First Refusal, in whole or in part, by written instrument.

  1. Severability

If any provision of this Clause is held to be invalid or unenforceable, such provision shall be struck from this Clause and the remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect.

  1. Governing Law

This Clause shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the [country].



In the realm of shareholders agreements, the inclusion of a First Right of Refusal clause is more than a legal formality—it is a strategic imperative. From preserving ownership structure and fostering stability to maximizing value and strategic decision-making, the FROR clause serves as a linchpin for shareholders seeking to secure their control and investments in a dynamic and competitive business environment. Understanding and implementing this clause can be a key differentiator in ensuring the long-term success and resilience of a company.

NIK ERMAN NIK ROSELI Commercial Lawyer

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